Table 1.

Characteristics of the Women From the Nurses’ Health Study II by Quintile of Anthocyanin Intake at Baseline

Anthocyanin Intake, mg/d
Quintile 1 (n=18 676)Quintile 2 (n=18 736)Quintile 3 (n=18 727)Quintile 4 (n=18 729)Quintile 5 (n=18 732)P for Trend
Age, y36.4 (4.7)36.4 (4.7)36.6 (4.7)36.7 (4.6)36.9 (4.6)
BMI, kg/m225.1 (5.8)24.8 (5.4)24.5 (5.1)24.4 (5.0)24.2 (4.8)<0.0001
Premenopausal, %96.296.296.096.596.6<0.001
Oral contraceptive use, %
 Never16151516160.82
 Past74747374730.12
 Current10111110110.045
Smoking, %
 Never6166676866<0.0001
 Former2021222324<0.0001
 Current, 1–14 per day75555<0.0001
 Current, ≥15 per day127654<0.0001
Physical activity, METs/wk16.4 (24.2)18.3 (24.2)20.7 (26.2)23.2 (29.3)25.8 (30.7)<0.0001
Family history of MI, %23212221210.0006
History of hypertension, %7.36.36.25.95.9<0.0001
History of diabetes mellitus, %0.90.91.10.91.00.64
History of hypercholesterolemia, %16.115.014.113.913.7<0.0001
Energy intake, kcal/d1847 (594)1831 (486)1740 (606)1922 (523)1606 (461)<0.0001
Alcohol, g/d3.0 (7.1)2.8 (5.5)3.0 (5.5)3.4 (6.0)3.3 (6.1)<0.0001
Total fat, g/d68.3 (25.2)65.7 (20.2)60.7 (23.7)66.0 (21.1)52.9 (17.3)<0.0001
Saturated fat, g/d24.7 (9.7)23.4 (7.7)21.5 (8.9)23.3 (8.0)18.5 (6.5)<0.0001
Monounsaturated fat, g/d26.1 (9.9)25.0 (8.1)23.0 (9.4)25.0 (8.4)19.9 (6.8)<0.0001
Polyunsaturated fat, g/d11.6 (4.8)11.6 (4.1)10.9 (4.6)12.0 (4.2)9.8 (3.6)<0.0001
Trans fat, g/d3.8 (1.8)3.5 (1.5)3.1 (1.6)3.3 (1.5)2.5 (1.1)<0.0001
Dietary fiber, g/d15.7 (6.6)17.6 (6.8)17.9 (7.7)20.6 (7.8)18.9 (8.0)<0.0001
Whole grain, g/d16.8 (15.4)19.6 (15.5)20.0 (16.3)23.1 (17.2)20.7 (16.3)<0.0001
Potassium, mg/d2734 (924)2890 (860)2837 (995)3199 (961)2857 (929)<0.0001
Total flavonoids, mg/d351 (541)366 (451)422 (502)402 (423)520 (519)<0.0001
Flavanones, mg/d26.8 (34.3)30.4 (31.1)34.4 (35.4)34.4 (32.8)41.2 (38.5)<0.0001
Flavonols, mg/d16.0 (13.7)17.2 (12.8)18.6 (13.2)19.3 (12.5)21.6 (13.9)<0.0001
Flavones, mg/d1.2 (1.1)1.4 (1.0)1.6 (1.0)1.7 (1.0)1.9 (1.2)<0.0001
Flavan-3-ols, mg/d58.1 (93.8)58.4 (83.7)62.6 (89.2)60.2 (77.6)71.1 (90.5)<0.0001
Polymers, mg/d246.8 (439)254.0 (359)297.4 (403)273.3 (336)351.4 (415)<0.0001
  • BMI indicates body mass index; METs, metabolic equivalents; and MI, myocardial infarction. All values (except age) are age-adjusted mean ± SD.