Table 25-2.

Costs of Total CVD in Billions of Dollars by Age and Sex: United States, Average Annual 2011 to 2012

TotalMaleFemaleAge <65 yAge >65 y
Indirect mortality123.591.831.7106.017.5
  • Numbers may not add to total because of rounding. CVD indicates cardiovascular diseases and stroke.

  • Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, average annual 2011 to 2012 (direct costs) and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics and present value of lifetime earnings from the Institute for Health and Aging, University of California, San Francisco (indirect costs).

  • All estimates prepared by Michael Mussolino, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.