Table 9-1.

High Blood Pressure

Population GroupPrevalence, 2012, Age ≥20 yMortality,* 2013, All AgesHospital Discharges, 2010, All AgesEstimated Cost, 2012
Both sexes80 000 000 (32.6%)71 942488 000$48.6 Billion
Males38 300 000 (33.5%)33 563 (46.7%)216 000
Females41 700 000 (31.7%)38 379 (53.3%)272 000
NH white males32.9%22 392
NH white females30.1%27 446
NH black males44.9%7344
NH black females46.1%7230
Hispanic males29.6%2546
Hispanic females29.9%2362
NH Asian or Pacific Islander1875
NH American Indian/Alaska Native26.4%§420
  • Hypertension is defined in terms of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey blood pressure measurements and health interviews. A subject was considered hypertensive if systolic blood pressure was ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure was ≥90 mm Hg, if the subject said “yes” to taking antihypertensive medication, or if the subject was told on 2 occasions that he or she had hypertension. Prevalence in American Indian or Alaska Natives is based on self-report data from the National Health Interview Survey, with hypertension defined as subjects having been told on ≥2 different visits that they had hypertension or high blood pressure. Ellipses (…) indicate data not available; and NH, non-Hispanic.

  • * Mortality for Hispanic, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Asian and Pacific Islander people should be interpreted with caution because of inconsistencies in reporting Hispanic origin or race on the death certificate compared with censuses, surveys, and birth certificates. Studies have shown underreporting on death certificates of American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian and Pacific Islander, and Hispanic decedents, as well as undercounts of these groups in censuses.

  • These percentages represent the portion of total high blood pressure mortality that is for males vs females.

  • Includes Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian, Japanese, and other Asian or Pacific Islander.

  • § National Health Interview Survey (2014), National Center for Health Statistics; data are weighted percentages for Americans ≥18 years of age. Individuals had to have been told on ≥2 different visits that they had hypertension or high blood pressure to be classified as hypertensive.37

  • Sources: Prevalence: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009–2012), National Center for Health Statistics, and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Percentages for racial/ethnic groups are age adjusted for Americans ≥20 years of age. Age-specific percentages are extrapolated to the 2012 US population estimates. Mortality: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Health Statistics, 2013 Mortality Multiple Cause-of-Death–United States. These data represent underlying cause of death only. Hospital discharges: National Hospital Discharge Survey, National Center for Health Statistics; data include those discharged alive, dead, or status unknown. Cost: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data include estimated direct costs for 2011 to 2012 (annual average); indirect costs calculated by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute for 2011 to 2012 (annual average).