Table 15-4.

Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease

SamplePopulation, Weighted
Surgery for congenital heart disease, n14 88825 831
 Deaths, n7361253
 Mortality rate, %4.94.8
By sex (81 missing in sample)
 Male, n812714 109
  Deaths, n420714
  Mortality rate, %5.25.1
 Female, n668011 592
  Deaths, n315539
  Mortality rate, %4.74.6
By type of surgery
 ASD secundum surgery, n8341448
  Deaths, n36
  Mortality rate, %0.40.4
 Norwood procedure for HLHS, n161286
  Deaths, n4272
  Mortality rate, %26.125.2
  • In 2003, 25000 cardiovascular operations for congenital cardiovascular defects were performed on children <20 years of age. Inpatient mortality rate after all types of cardiac surgery was 4.8%. Nevertheless, mortality risk varies substantially for different defect types, from 0.4% for ASD repair to 25.2% for first-stage palliation for HLHS. Fifty-five percent of operations were performed in males. In unadjusted analysis, mortality after cardiac surgery was somewhat higher for males than for females (5.1% vs 4.6%). ASD indicates atrial septal defect; and HLHS, hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

  • Source: Data derived from Ma et al.94