Table 14-2.

Modifiable Stroke Risk Factors

FactorPrevalence, %PAR, %*RR
Cigarette smoking
 Ages 20–34 y
 Ages 35–44 y
 Ages 45–54 y
 Ages 55–64 y
 Ages 65–74 y
 Ages ≥75 y
Diabetes mellitus7.35–271.8–6.0
High total cholesterolData calculated for highest quintile (20%) vs lowest quintile9.1 (5.7–13.8)1.5 (95% CI, 1.3–1.8)
Continuous risk for ischemic stroke1.25 per 1-mmol/L (38.7 mg/dL) increase
 <40 mg/dL
Data calculated for highest quintile (20%) vs lowest quintile23.70.4
 <35 mg/dL2620.6 (10.1–30.7)2.00 (95% CI, 1.43–2.70)
Continuous risk for ischemic stroke≈0.5–0.6 for each 1-mmol/L increase
AF (nonvalvular)
 Overall age, y
Asymptomatic carotid stenosis2–82–7§2.0
Sickle cell disease0.25 (of blacks)200–400
Postmenopausal hormone therapy25 (Women 50–74 y of age)91.4
Oral contraceptive use13 (women 25–44 y)9.42.3
Dietary factors
 Na intake >2300 mg75–90UnknownUnknown
 K intake <4700 mg90–99UnknownUnknown
Physical inactivity25302.7
Obesity1.39 Stroke death per increase of 5 kg/m2
  Men8.45.81.73 (1.68–1.78)
  Women5.63.91.55 (1.17–2.07)
Heart failure
Peripheral arterial disease4.93.0
  • AF indicates atrial fibrillation; CHD, coronary heart disease; CI, confidence interval; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; PAR, population attributable risk; and RR, relative risk.

  • * PAR is the proportion of ischemic stroke in the population that can be attributed to a particular risk factor (see Goldstein et al104 for formula).

  • PAR is for stroke deaths, not ischemic stroke incidence.

  • PAR percent=100×{[prevalence (RR−1)/prevalence (RR−1)+1]}.

  • § Calculated on the basis of referenced data provided in the table or text.

  • Relative to stroke risk in children without sickle cell disease.

  • Calculated on the basis of point estimates of referenced data provided in the table. For peripheral arterial disease, calculation was based on average RR for men and women.

  • Adapted from Goldstein et al104 with permission. Copyright © 2011, American Heart Association, Inc.