Table 1.

Secondary End Points Before and After Control and Fire Simulation Exposures

Control (n=17)Fire Simulation (n=17)P Value
Before ExposureAfter Exposure4 h24 hPreexposurePostexposure4 h24 h
Hemoglobin, g/L139±3138±3142±3142±3144±3*149±3*137±2141±30.002
Hematocrit0.41±0.010.40±0.010.41±0.010.41±0.010.42±0.010.43±0.01*0.40±0.010.41±0.010.02
Leukocytes, ×109 cells/L5.5±0.35.9±0.26.1±0.25.7±0.26.1±0.47.4±0.67.5±0.45.7±0.3<0.001
Platelets, ×109 cells/L241±11234±10226±12253±11262±10305±15*231±8259±11<0.001
Sodium, mmol/L139±0.5139±0.5139±0.5140±0.6139±0.4139±0.6139±0.4139±0.50.02
Potassium, mmol/L4.4±0.14.3±0.14.3±0.14.4±0.14.6±0.14.1±0.14.0±0.14.2±0.10.1
Bicarbonate, mmol/L23±1.525±0.424±0.523±0.625±0.420±0.7*23±0.323±0.40.03
Urea, mmol/L5.0±0.34.9±0.34.5±0.25.1±0.35.0±0.35.1±0.34.8±0.35.2±0.20.16
Creatinine, mmol/L74±374±370±278±376±284±3*71±277±3<0.001
Lactate, mmol/L1.0±0.11.0±0.11.0±0.11.4±0.23.7±0.5*1.0±0.0<0.001
Glucose, mmol/L4.8±0.14.7±0.14.5±0.26.0±0.2*0.007
t-PA, ng/mL8.7±1.28.4±1.07.6±1.17.1±1.40.04
PAI 1, ng/mL3.0±0.62.7±0.40.08
t-PA/PAI 1 ratio2.9±0.53.8±0.70.16
Cardiac troponin I, ng/L§1.4 (0.9–7.4)1.5 (1.3–2.9)1.5 (0.9–2.5)1.4 (0.8–2.5)3.0 (1.7–6.4)2.9 (1.2–4.6)0.010
  • Values are reported as mean±SEM or median (interquartile range) in values that were not normally distributed; 2-way ANOVA with repeated measures comparing control and fire simulation exposures. ANOVA indicates analysis of variance; PAI 1, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1; SEM, standard error of the mean; and t-PA, tissue-type plasminogen activator;

  • * P<0.001 following Bonferroni correction comparing control and fire simulation exposures at a given time point.

  • P<0.01 after Bonferroni correction comparing control and fire simulation exposures at a given time point.

  • P<0.05 after Bonferroni correction comparing control and fire simulation exposures at a given time point.

  • § Cardiac troponin was log-transformed before analysis.