Table 5-2.

Dietary Consumption of Selected Foods and Nutrients Related to Cardiometabolic Health Among US Adults ≥20 Years of Age in 2011 to 2012

NH White MalesNH White FemalesNH Black MalesNH Black FemalesMexican American MalesMexican American Females
Average Consumption% Meeting Guidelines*Average Consumption% Meeting Guidelines*Average Consumption% Meeting Guidelines*Average Consumption% Meeting Guidelines*Average Consumption% Meeting Guidelines*Average Consumption% Meeting Guidelines*
 Whole grains, servings/d1.1±±±±±±0.76.1
 Total fruit, servings/d1.5±±1.69.21±±±±1.05.7
 Total fruits including 100% juices, servings/d2.0±1.715.32.2±1.9142±1.815.82±1.3141.9±1.516.42.1±1.514.5
 Nonstarchy vegetables, servings/d2.3±±1.612.41.7±±±±0.57.7
 Starchy vegetables, servings/d0.9±0.3NA0.8±0.3NA0.9±0.5NA0.9±0.4NA0.7±0.2NA0.7±0.3NA
 Legumes, servings/wk1.6±1.422.11.1±0.714.41.1±±±±2.624.8
 Fish and shellfish, servings/wk1.1±±0.916.51.7±2.723.31.9±0.926.71.7±1.719.70.8±0.114.6
 Nuts and seeds, servings/wk3.5±5.923.73.6±3.324.02.2±3.416.22.8±8.616.02.4±1.612.42.6±3.811.8
 Unprocessed red meat, servings/wk3.6±1.6NA2.5±1.3NA3.1±0.8NA2.6±1.3NA4.8±0.6NA3.2±1.5NA
 Processed meats, servings/wk2.4±1.457.41.6±±1.5551.8±0.665.61.7±±0.578.9
 Sugar-sweetened beverages, servings/wk9.1±±8.365.411.1±8.932.311±8.033.911.7±7.732.78.4±6.642.7
 Sweets and bakery desserts, servings/wk6.4±3.633.17.3±±±±2.554.05.8±0.638.5
 Total calories, kcal/d2482±551NA1789±421NA2354±682NA1853±514NA2576±506NA1848±467NA
 EPA/DHA, g/d0.083±0.0537.40.074±0.0546.40.101±±0.1013.70.117±0.07510.70.058±0.0374.0
 ALA, g/d1.58±0.3541.91.75±0.3885.01.51±0.3735.51.72±0.4383.11.57±0.4641.21.66±0.2281.9
 n-6 PUFA, % energy7.0±1.4NA7.3±1.5NA7.2±1.2NA7.8±1.6NA6.8±1.4NA7.0±0.5NA
 Saturated fat, % energy11.0±1.836.310.7±1.843.110.2±1.847.110.3±1.546.310.7±1.442.010.9±2.446.9
 Dietary cholesterol, mg/d281±17767.7256±18071.4322±19358.9299±17663.1343±21651.6290±22168.7
 Total fat, % energy33.7±5.352.733.2±4.658.833.2±4.858.333.9±±3.863.933.5±3.656.6
 Carbohydrate, % energy47.9±7.7NA49.8±7.2NA48.1±7.2NA50±4.9NA49.1±4.4NA50.5±5.7NA
 Dietary fiber, g/d17.2±6.37.318.4±6.210.314.3±4.63.715.2±4.65.319.3±5.913.418.9±5.814.2
 Sodium, g/d3.4±0.496.73.4±0.626.43.4±0.436.43.5±0.638.43.4±0.488.43.5±0.638.4
  • Values for average consumption are mean±SD. Data are from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2012, derived from two 24-hour dietary recalls per person, with population standard deviations adjusted for within-person vs between-person variation (analyses courtesy of Dr Colin Rehm, Tufts University). All values are energy adjusted by individual regressions or percent energy, and for comparability, means and proportions are reported for a 2000-kcal/d diet. To obtain actual mean consumption levels, the group means for each food or nutrient can be multiplied by the group-specific total calories (kcal/d) divided by 2000 kcal/d. Compared with 2014 and earlier American Heart Association Statistical Updates, the calculations for foods now use the US Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Food Patterns Equivalent Database on composition of various mixed dishes, which incorporates partial amounts of various foods (eg, vegetables, nuts, processed meats) in mixed dishes; in addition, the characterization of whole grains is now derived from the USDA database instead of the ratio of total carbohydrate to fiber. ALA indicates α-linoleic acid; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; NA, not available; NH, non-Hispanic; and n-6-PUFA, ω-6-polyunsaturated fatty acid.

  • * All intakes and guidelines adjusted to a 2000 kcal/d diet. Servings are defined as follows: whole grains, 1-oz equivalents; fruits and vegetables, ½-cup equivalents; legumes, ½ cup; fish/shellfish, 3.5 oz or 100 g; nuts and seeds, 1 oz; unprocessed red or processed meat, 3.5 oz or 100 g; sugar-sweetened beverages, 8 fl oz; sweets and bakery desserts, 50 g. Guidelines defined as follows: whole grains, 3 or more 1-oz equivalent (eg, 21 g whole wheat bread, 82 g cooked brown rice, 31 g Cheerios) servings/d54; fruits, 2 or more cups/d54; nonstarchy vegetables, 2½ or more cups/d; legumes, 1.5 or more cups/wk54; fish or shellfish, 2 or more 100-g (3.5-oz) servings/wk54; nuts and seeds, 4 or more 1-oz servings/wk54; processed meats (bacon, hot dogs, sausage, processed deli meats), 2 or fewer 100-g (3.5-oz) servings/wk (¼ of discretionary calories); sugar-sweetened beverages (defined as ≥50 cal/8 oz, excluding 100% fruit juices), ≤36 oz/wk (≈¼ of discretionary calories); sweets and bakery desserts, 2.5 or fewer 50-g servings/wk (≈¼ of discretionary calories); EPA/DHA, ≥0.250 g/d54; ALA, ≥1.6/1.1 g/d (males/females)54; saturated fat, <10% energy; dietary cholesterol, <300 mg/d54; total fat, 20% to 35% energy; dietary fiber, ≥28 g/d54; and sodium, <2.3 g/d.54 No dietary targets are listed for starchy vegetables and unprocessed red meats because of their positive association with long-term weight gain and their positive or uncertain relation with diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.

  • Including white potatoes (chips, fries, mashed, baked, roasted, mixed dishes), corn, plantain, green peas, etc. Sweet potatoes, pumpkin, and squash are considered red-orange vegetables by the USDA and are included in nonstarchy vegetables.