Table 4.

Appendix: Depression Scales

ScaleDescription and Type of ScaleTime and AdministrationComments
Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)20Self-rating scale with 30 items in “yes/no” format. No items refer to disability.Uses: screening and monitoring Time: 10 minBrief. Less affected by visual impairments, physical illness, difficulty in choosing options, and poor motivation. “Yes/no” format better for the elderly and the cognitively impaired.
Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression (CES-D)21Self-rating scale, measures severity of depressive symptoms 20-item questionnaire investigates perceived mood and level of functioning within the past week.Uses: screening and monitoring Time: <15 minBrief self-report, easily administered. Useful in the elderly. Effective for screening stroke population.