Table 1. Continued

First Author (Year)CountryType of Meat*Consumption in Lowest Category, Median Servings/wkConsumption in Highest Category, Median Servings/wkDisease OutcomeDisease AscertainmentStudy Name
T2DM indicates type 2 diabetes mellitus; ICD-10, International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision; WHO, World Health Organization; 3ITALCC, 3 Italian case-control studies; AAC, Australian Aboriginal cohort; CARDIO-2000, Greek case-control study; EPIC-Potsdam, European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition–Potsdam Study; HNLSS, Hiroshima/Nagasaki Life Span Study; HPFS, Health Professionals Follow-Up Study; IWHS, Iowa Women’s Health Study; KIHD, Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study; NHS1, Nurses’ Health Study 1; NHS2, Nurses’ Health Study 2; NIH-AARP, National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study; OXCHECK, OXford and Collaborators HEalth ChecK; SPAINCC, Spanish case-control study; SWHS, Shanghai Women’s Health Study; and WHS, Women’s Health Study.
*Including red meat (unprocessed red meat), processed meat (total processed meat), and total meat (red and processed combined), as well as subtypes (eg, beef, pork, hamburger, ham) within each meat category when available.
    Fung (2004)12USRed0.0711.90Stroke (ischemic)Physician review of medical records, autopsy reports, or death certificateNHS1
Processed (and subtypes)0.0711.90Stroke (ischemic)
Total meat0.0711.90Stroke (ischemic)
    Song (2004)16USRed (only subtypes)T2DMSelf-reportWHS
Processed (and subtypes)0.003.92T2DM
Total meat0.919.94T2DM
    Kelemen (2005)8USTotal meat3.9216.80CHD (fatal)National death registryIWHS
    Sinha (2009)3USTotal meat1.378.75CVD (fatal)National death registryNIH-AARP
Processed0.456.33CVD (fatal)
Total meat1.378.75CVD (fatal)
Processed0.456.33CVD (fatal)
Case-control studies
    Kontogianni (2008)9GreeceTotal meat0.281.25CHD (nonfatal)Physician diagnosisCARDIO-2000
    Tavani (2004)29ItalyProcessed (only subtypes)CHD (nonfatal MI)Physician diagnosis3ITALCC
    Martinez-Gonzalez (2002)6SpainRed3.5013.30CHD (nonfatal MI)Physician diagnosisSPAINCC
Processed0.885.25CHD (nonfatal MI)