Table 1. Identified Studies Evaluating the Consumption of Red, Processed, or Total Meat and Incidence of CHD, Stroke, or Diabetes Mellitus

First Author (Year)CountryType of Meat*Consumption in Lowest Category, Median Servings/wkConsumption in Highest Category, Median Servings/wkDisease OutcomeDisease AscertainmentStudy Name
Cohort studies
    Burke (2007)5AustraliaRed3.008.00CHD (total)Regional hospital records and death registryAAC
Processed0.532.13CHD (total)
    Villegas (2006)18ChinaRed1.196.00T2DMSupplementary questionnaireSWHS
Processed (and subtypes)0.003.89T2DM
    Salonen (1992)10FinlandTotal meat6.0716.49CHD (total MI)Regional MI registryKIHD
    Kröger (unpublished data, 2009)GermanyRed   Processed0.67   3.184.16   17.61T2DM   T2DMICD-10 criteria, validated by physicianEPIC-Potsdam
    Sauvaget (2003)11JapanRed0.005.50Stroke (fatal)National death registryHNLSS
Processed0.005.50Stroke (fatal)
    Whiteman (1999)2UKRed0.505.50CHD (fatal)National death registryOXCHECK
Processed0.505.50CHD (fatal)
    Ascherio (1994)4USRed (and subtypes)1.1110.16CHD (total)Physician review of medical records, autopsy reports, or death certificateHPFS
    Meyer (2001)19USProcessed0.003.50T2DMSelf-reportIWHS
Total meat2.0013.50T2DM
    van Dam (2002)15USRed (and subtypes)0.989.03T2DMWHO diabetes criteria, using validated supplementary questionnaireHPFS
Processed (and subtypes)0.007.00T2DM
    He (2003)13USTotal meat0.508.00Stroke (hemorrhagic)Physician review of medical records, autopsy reports, or death certificateHPFS
Total meat0.508.00Stroke (ischemic)
    Liu (2003)7USProcessed0.082.41CHD (total)Physician review of medical records, autopsy reports, or death certificateNHS1
Total meat2.2112.31CHD (total)
    Schulze (2003)17USRed (and subtypes)0.007.49T2DMNational Diabetes Data Group criteria, using validated supplementary questionnaireNHS2
Processed (and subtypes)0.257.00T2DM
    Fung (2004)14USRed1.476.72T2DMNational Diabetes Data Group criteria, using validated supplementary questionnaireNHS1
Processed (and subtypes)0.283.85T2DM
Total meat2.249.87T2DM
(Continued)