Table 5-2. Modifiable Stroke Risk Factors

FactorPrevalence, %Population-Attributable Risk, %*RR
Data derived from Hart et al134,135 and van Walraven et al.136 Stroke includes both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Cardiovascular disease includes coronary heart disease, heart failure, and peripheral arterial disease.
*Population-attributable risk is the proportion of ischemic stroke in the population that can be attributed to a particular risk factor (see text for formula).
†Calculated on the basis of point estimates of referenced data provided in the table. For peripheral arterial disease, calculation was based on average RR for men and women.
‡Calculated based on referenced data provided in the table or text.
§Relative to stroke risk in children without sickle cell disease.
∥For high-risk patients treated with transfusion.
Adapted from Goldstein LB, Adams R, Alberts MJ, Appel LJ, Brass LM, Bushnell CD, Culebras A, Degraba TJ, Gorelick PB, Guyton JR, Hart RG, Howard G, Kelly-Hayes M, Nixon JV, Sacco RL, for the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council; Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease Interdisciplinary Working Group; Cardiovascular Nursing Council; Clinical Cardiology Council; Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism Council; Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group; and American Academy of Neurology. Primary prevention of ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council: cosponsored by the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease Interdisciplinary Working Group; Cardiovascular Nursing Council; Clinical Cardiology Council; Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism Council; and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group: the American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this guideline. Stroke. 2006;37:1583-1633.
CVD
    CHD111
        Men8.45.81.73 (1.68–1.78)128
        Women5.63.91.55 (1.17–2.07)128
    Heart failure111
        Men2.61.4
        Women2.11.1
    Peripheral arterial disease4.93.0
Hypertension112
    Age 50 y20404.0
    Age 60 y30353.0
    Age 70 y40302.0
    Age 80 y55201.4
    Age 90 y6001.0
Cigarette smoking2512–181.8
Diabetes7.35–271.8–6
Asymptomatic carotid stenosis2–8115-1212–72.0129
Atrial fibrillation (nonvalvular)113,114
    Age 50–59 y0.51.54.0
    Age 60–69 y1.82.82.6
    Age 70–79 y4.89.93.3
    Age 80–89 y8.823.54.5
Sickle cell disease0.25 (of blacks)122200–400130§
Dyslipidemia
    High total cholesterol25123152.0 for men and for women <55 y of age
    Low HDL cholesterol25123101.5–2.5 for men
Dietary factors
    Na intake >2300 mg75–90UnknownUnknown
    K intake <4700 mg90–99124Unknown
Obesity17.912512–201.75–2.37131,132
Physical inactivity5725302.7
Postmenopausal hormone therapy20126 (women 50–74 y of age)12771.4133