Study of Two Dose Regimens of Ticagrelor Compared with Clopidogrel in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Stable Coronary Artery Disease (STEEL-PCI)
Background—Ticagrelor has superior efficacy to clopidogrel in the management of acute coronary syndromes but has not been assessed in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for stable coronary artery disease (CAD). We compared the pharmacodynamic effects of ticagrelor and clopidogrel in this stable population.
Methods—180 aspirin-treated stable CAD patients, who were planned to undergo elective PCI in a single center, were randomized 1:1:1 to either a standard clopidogrel regimen or one of two regimens of ticagrelor, either 90mg (T90) or 60mg twice-daily (T60), both with 180mg loading dose. Cellular adenosine uptake was assessed, at the time of the procedure and pre- and post-dose at 1 month, by adding adenosine 1 μmol/L to aliquots of anticoagulated whole blood and mixing with a stop solution at 0, 15, 30 and 60 seconds then measuring residual plasma adenosine concentration by high-performance liquid chromatography. Systemic plasma adenosine concentration and platelet reactivity were assessed at the same timepoints. High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) was measured pre- and 18-24 hours post-PCI.
Results—174 patients underwent an invasive procedure, of which 162 patients received PCI (mean age 65 years, 18% female, 21% with diabetes mellitus). No effect on in vitro adenosine uptake was seen post-dose at 1 month for either ticagrelor dose compared with clopidogrel (residual adenosine at 15s, mean ± SD: clopidogrel 0.274 ± 0.101 μmol/L; T90 0.278 ± 0.134 μmol/L; T60 0.288 ± 0.149 μmol/L; P = 0.37). Similarly no effect of ticagrelor on in vitro adenosine uptake was seen at other timepoints, nor was plasma adenosine concentration affected (all P > 0.1). Both maintenance doses of ticagrelor achieved more potent and consistent platelet inhibition than clopidogrel (VerifyNow PRU, 1 month, mean ± SD: pre-dose, T60: 62 ± 47, T90: 40 ± 38, clopidogrel 181 ± 44; post-dose, T60: 34 ± 30, T90: 24 ± 21, clopidogrel 159 ± 57; all P < 0.0001 for ticagrelor vs clopidogrel). High platelet reactivity was markedly less with both T60 and T90 compared with clopidogrel (VerifyNow PRU>208, 1-month post-dose: 0%, 0% and 21%, respectively). Median (IQR) hsTnT increase was 16.9 (6.5-46.9) ng/l for clopidogrel, 22.4 (5.5-53.8) ng/L for T60 and 17.7 (8.1-43.5) ng/L for T90 (P = 0.95). There was a trend towards less dyspnea with T60 versus T90 (7.1% vs 19.0%; P = 0.09).
Conclusions—Maintenance therapy with T60 or T90 had no detectable effect on cellular adenosine uptake at 1 month, nor was there any effect on systemic plasma adenosine levels. Both regimens of ticagrelor achieved greater and more consistent platelet inhibition than clopidogrel but did not appear to affect troponin release following PCI.
Clinical Trial Registration—URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT02327624
- Received March 9, 2018.
- Revision received May 7, 2018.
- Accepted June 5, 2018.
Circulation is published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wolters Kluwer. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.