B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Assessment in Patients Undergoing Revascularization for Left Main Coronary Artery Disease: Analysis from the EXCEL Trial
Background—Elevated B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is reflective of impaired cardiac function and is associated with worse prognosis among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We sought to assess the association between baseline BNP, adverse outcomes, and the relative efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with left main (LM) CAD.
Methods—The EXCEL trial randomized patients with LMCAD and low or intermediate SYNTAX scores to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents versus CABG. The primary endpoint was the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to assess the associations between normal versus elevated BNP (≥100 pg/mL), randomized treatment, and the 3-year risk of adverse events.
Results—BNP at baseline was elevated in 410 of 1037 (39.5%) patients enrolled in EXCEL. Patients with elevated BNP levels were older and more frequently had additional cardiovascular risk factors and lower LVEF than those with normal BNP, but had similar SYNTAX scores. Patients with elevated BNP had significantly higher 3-year rates of the primary endpoint (18.6% vs. 11.7%, adjusted HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.16-2.28, P=0.005), and higher mortality (11.5% vs. 3.9%, adjusted HR 2.49, 95% CI 1.48-4.19, P=0.0006), both from cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the risks of MI, stroke, ischemia-driven revascularization, stent thrombosis, graft occlusion, or major bleeding. A significant interaction (Pinteraction=0.03) was present between elevated versus normal BNP and treatment with PCI versus CABG for the adjusted risk of the primary composite endpoint at 3 years among patients with elevated BNP (adjusted HR for PCI versus CABG 1.54, 95% CI 0.96-2.47) versus normal BNP (adjusted HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.46-1.20). This interaction was stronger when log(BNP) was modeled as a continuous variable (Pinteraction=0.002).
Conclusions—In the EXCEL trial, elevated baseline BNP levels in patients with LMCAD undergoing revascularization were independently associated with long-term mortality but not non-fatal adverse ischemic or bleeding events. The relative long-term outcomes after PCI vs. CABG for revascularization of LMCAD may be conditioned by the baseline BNP level.
Clinical Trial Registration—URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01205776.
- B-type natriuretic peptide
- left main coronary artery disease
- percutaneous coronary intervention
- coronary artery bypass graft surgery
- Received January 8, 2018.
- Revision received April 3, 2018.
- Accepted April 5, 2018.