Risk of Dementia in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease: Population-Based Cohort Study
Background—More children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are surviving to adulthood, and CHD is associated with risk factors for dementia. We compared the risk of dementia in CHD adults to that of the general population.
Methods—In this cohort study, we used medical registries and a medical record review covering all Danish hospitals to identify adults with CHD diagnosed between 1963 and 2012. These individuals with CHD were followed from January 1, 1981, 30 years of age, or date of first CHD registration (index date for matched members of the general population cohort) until hospital diagnosis of dementia, death, emigration, or end of study (December 31, 2012). For each individual with CHD, we identified 10 members of the general population utilizing the Danish Civil Registration System matched on sex and birth year. We computed cumulative incidences and hazard ratios (HRs) of dementia, adjusting for sex and birth year.
Results—The cumulative incidence of dementia was 4% by 80 years of age in 10 632 adults with CHD (46% male). The overall HR comparing adults with CHD with the general population cohort was 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3−2.0). The HR among individuals with CHD without extracardiac defects was 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1−1.8). Adults with mild-to-moderate CHD had an HR of 1.5 (95% CI, 1.1−2.0), whereas the HR was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.2−3.3) for severe CHD, including univentricular hearts. The HR for early onset dementia (<65 years of age) was 2.6 (95% CI, 1.8−3.8), whereas the late-onset HR was 1.3 (95% CI, 1.0−1.8).
Conclusions—CHD was associated with an increased risk of dementia compared with the general population, in particular for early onset dementia. Further understanding of dementia risk in the population with CHD is a potential target for future investigation.
- Received June 5, 2017.
- Revision received November 10, 2017.
- Accepted December 12, 2017.