Range of Risk Factor Levels/ Control, Mortality and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 1 Diabetes
Background—Individuals with type 1 diabetes have high risk of cardiovascular complications, but it is unknown to what extent fulfilling all cardiovascular treatment goals is associated with residual risk of mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in type 1 diabetes compared with the general population.
Methods—We included all patients with type 1 diabetes aged ≥18 years registered in the Swedish National Diabetes Register from January 1, 1998 - December 31, 2014, in all 33,333 patients, each matched for age and sex with 5 controls without diabetes randomly selected from the population. Patients with type 1 diabetes were categorized according to number of risk factors not at target: glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, albuminuria, smoking and LDL cholesterol. Risk of all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure hospitalization (HF) and stroke was examined in relation to the number of risk factors at target.
Results—The mean follow-up was 10.4 years in the diabetes group. Overall, 2074 of 33,333 patients with diabetes and 4141 of 166,529 controls died. Risk for all outcomes increased stepwise for each additional risk factor not at target. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for patients achieving all risk factor targets compared with controls were 1.31 (95% CI 0.93-1.85) for all-cause mortality; 1.82 (95% CI 1.15-2.88) for AMI; 1.97 (95% CI 1.04-3.73) for HF; and 1.17 (95% CI 0.51-2.68) for stroke. HR for patients versus controls with none of the risk factors meeting target was 7.33 (95% CI 5.08-10.57) for all-cause mortality; 12.34 (95% CI 7.91-19.48) for AMI: 15.09 (95% CI 9.87-23.09) for HF; and 12.02 (95% CI 7.66-18.85) for stroke.
Conclusions—A steep graded association exists between decreasing number of CV risk factors at target and major adverse CV outcomes among patients with T1DM. However, risks for all outcomes were numerically higher for T1DM patients compared with controls, even when all risk factors were at target, with risk for AMI and HF statistically significantly so.
- Received October 14, 2016.
- Revision received February 6, 2017.
- Accepted February 9, 2017.
Circulation is published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wolters Kluwer. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial-NoDervis License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/), which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited, the use is noncommercial, and no modifications or adaptations are made.