Sudden Cardiac Death in Patients with Ischemic Heart Failure Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: Results from the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) Randomized Clinical Trial
Background—The risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with heart failure following CABG has not been examined in a contemporary clinical trial of surgical revascularization. This analysis describes the incidence, timing and clinical predictors of SCD after CABG.
Methods—Patients enrolled in the Surgical Treatment of Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) trial who underwent CABG with or without surgical ventricular reconstruction (SVR) were included. We excluded patients with prior ICD and those randomized only to medical therapy. The primary outcome was SCD as adjudicated by a blinded committee. A Cox model was used to examine and identify predictors of SCD. The Fine and Gray method was used to estimate the incidence of SCD accounting for the competing risk of other deaths.
Results—Over a median follow-up of 46 months, 113 patients of 1411 patients who received CABG without (n = 934) or with SVR (n = 477) had SCD; 311 died of other causes. The mean LVEF at enrollment was 28±9%. The 5-year cumulative incidence of SCD was 8.5%. Patients who had SCD and those who did not die were younger and had fewer comorbid conditions than those who died for reasons other than SCD. In the first 30 days after CABG, SCD (n=5) accounted for 7% of all deaths. The numerically greatest monthly rate of SCD was in the 31-90 day time period. In a multivariable analysis including baseline demographics, risk factors, coronary anatomy and LV function, ESVI and BNP were most strongly associated with SCD.
Conclusions—The monthly risk of SCD shortly after CABG among patients with a low LVEF is highest between the first and third month, suggesting that risk stratification for SCD should occur early in the postoperative period, particularly in patients with increased preoperative ESVI and/or BNP.
Clinical Trial Registration—NCT0002359 (www.stichtrial.org)
- Received October 21, 2016.
- Revision received January 9, 2017.
- Accepted January 25, 2017.