Opposing Roles of Wnt Inhibitors IGFBP-4 and Dkk1 in Cardiac Ischemia by Differential Targeting of LRP5/6 and β-catenin
Background—Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, triggering irreversible myocardial cell damage and heart failure. The role of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins 5 and 6 (LRP5/6) as coreceptors of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the adult heart remain unknown. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 (IGFBP-4) and dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk1) are two secreted LRP5/6 binding proteins which play a crucial role in heart development through preventing Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation. However, their roles in the adult heart remain unexplored.
Methods—In order to understand the role of LRP5/6 and β-catenin in the adult heart, we constructed conditional cardiomyocyte-specific LRP5/6 and β-catenin knockout mice and induced surgical MI. We also directly injected recombinant proteins of IGFBP-4 and Dkk1 into the heart immediately following MI to further examine the mechanisms through which these proteins regulate LRP5/6 and β-catenin.
Results—Deletion of LRP5/6 promoted cardiac ischemic insults. Conversely, deficiency of β-catenin, a downstream target of LRP5/6, was beneficial in ischemic injury. Interestingly, although both IGFBP-4 and Dkk1 are secreted Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitors, IGFBP-4 protected ischemic heart by inhibiting β-catenin, whereas Dkk1 enhanced the injury response mainly through inducing LRP5/6 endocytosis and degradation.
Conclusions—Our findings reveal previously unidentified dual roles of LRP5/6 involved in the cardiomyocyte response to ischemic injury. These findings suggest new therapeutic strategies in ischemic heart disease by fine-tuning LRP5/6 and β-catenin signaling within the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.
- myocardial ischemia
- animal model
- cell signaling
- acute myocardial infarction
- Received July 13, 2016.
- Revision received September 30, 2016.
- Accepted October 5, 2016.