Potential and Caveats of Lipidomics for Cardiovascular Disease
Since the seminal publications from the Framingham study in the mid-sixties,1 the measurement of lipid levels, mainly of total cholesterol, total triglycerides, and LDL and HDL cholesterol, is routine clinical practice for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and lipid-lowering therapy. A more detailed assessment of the lipid composition, that is, the molecular species that constitute the lipid classes is not widely used, mainly due to the caveats of assessing the lipidome. The human lipidome is estimated to include thousands of molecular lipid species with functional diversity. The molecular lipid species within a lipid classes share a modular composition with fatty acids being attached to a common backbone. While a characteristic head group within the backbone defines the lipid class, the diversity of molecular lipid species derives from the conjugated fatty acids.2 The conjugated fatty acids can differ in their carbon chain length, the number, position, and configuration (cis or trans) of their double bonds, and in the position and type (acyl, alkyl, or vinyl) of linkage to the backbone.
- Received September 18, 2016.
- Accepted October 5, 2016.