In vivo Post-Cardiac Arrest Myocardial Dysfunction is Supported by CaMKII-Mediated Calcium Long-Term Potentiation and Mitigated by Alda-1, an Agonist of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Type 2
Background—Survival after sudden cardiac arrest is limited by post-arrest myocardial dysfunction but understanding of this phenomenon is constrained by lack of data from a physiological model of disease. In this study, we established an in vivo model of cardiac arrest and resuscitation, characterized the biology of the associated myocardial dysfunction, and tested novel therapeutic strategies.
Methods—We developed rodent models of in vivo post-arrest myocardial dysfunction using extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) resuscitation followed by invasive hemodynamics measurement. In post-arrest isolated cardiomyocytes, we assessed mechanical load and Ca2+ induced Ca2+ release (CICR) simultaneously using the micro-carbon-fiber technique and observed reduced function and myofilament calcium sensitivity. We used a novel-designed fiber optic catheter imaging system, and a genetically encoded calcium sensor GCaMP6f, to image CICR in vivo.
Results—We found potentiation of CICR in isolated cells from this ECMO model and also in cells isolated from an ischemia-reperfusion Langendorff model perfused with oxygenated blood from an arrested animal, but not when reperfused in saline. We established that CICR potentiation begins in vivo. The augmented CICR observed post-arrest was mediated by the activation of Ca2+/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII). Increased phosphorylation of CaMKII, phospholamban and ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) was detected in the post-arrest period. Exogenous adrenergic activation in vivo recapitulated Ca2+ potentiation but was associated with lesser CaMKII activation. Since oxidative stress and aldehydic adduct formation were high post arrest, we tested a small molecule activator of aldehyde dehydrogenase type 2, Alda-1, which reduced oxidative stress, restored calcium and CaMKII homeostasis, and improved cardiac function and post-arrest outcome in vivo.
Conclusions—Cardiac arrest and reperfusion lead to CaMKII activation and calcium long-term potentiation which support cardiomyocyte contractility in the face of impaired post-ischemic myofilament calcium sensitivity. Alda-1 mitigates these effects, normalizes calcium cycling and improves outcome.
- post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction
- ECMO resuscitation
- calcium-induced calcium release (CICR)
- CaMKII, aldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (ALDH2)
- oxidative stress
- Received September 10, 2013.
- Revision received June 15, 2016.
- Accepted July 21, 2016.