Longer Duration and Earlier Age of Onset of Paternal Betel Chewing and Smoking Increase Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Human Offspring, Independently, in a Community-Based Screening Program in Taiwan
Background—Transgenerational effects of paternal Areca-catechu nut chewing on offspring metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk in humans, on obesity and diabetes experimentally, and of paternal smoking on offspring obesity, are reported, likely due to genetic and/or epigenetic effects previously reported in betel-associated disease. We aimed to determine the effects of paternal smoking, and betel chewing, on the risks of early MetS in human offspring.
Methods—13,179 parent-child trios identified from 238,364 Taiwanese aged 20 years or older screened at two community-based integrated screening sessions were tested for the effects of paternal smoking, of Areca nut chewing, and of their duration pre-fatherhood, on age of detecting offspring MetS at screen using Cox proportional hazards regression model.
Results—Offspring MetS risks increased with pre-fatherhood paternal Areca-usage (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=1.77 (95% CI: 1.23, 2.53) vs. non-chewing fathers; aHR= 3.28(95% CI: 1.67, 6.43) with >10 years paternal betel-chewing, 1.62 (95% CI: 0.88, 2.96) for 5-9 years, and 1.42 (95% CI: 0.80, 2.54) for < 5 years betel-usage pre-fatherhood [p for trend=0.0002], with increased risk (aHR=1.95, 95% CI: 1.26, 3.04) for paternal Areca-usage from age 20-29 years, vs. from >30 years old [aHR=1.61, 95% CI: 0.22, 11.69)]. MetS offspring risk for paternal smoking increased dose-wise (ptrend, < 0.0001) with earlier age of onset (ptrend, = 0.0009), independently.
Conclusions—Longer duration of paternal betel-quid chewing and of smoking, pre-fatherhood, independently predicted early occurrence of incident MetS in offspring, corroborating previously reported transgenerational effects of these habits; supporting the need for habit-cessation program provision.
- Received January 13, 2016.
- Revision received May 11, 2016.
- Accepted May 18, 2016.