Gait Speed Predicts 30-Day Mortality Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Results From the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry™
Background—Surgical risk scores do not include frailty assessments (e.g., gait speed), which are of particular importance for severe aortic stenosis patients considering transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).
Methods and Results—We assessed the association of 5-meter gait speed with outcomes in a cohort of 8039 patients who underwent TAVR (11/2011-06/2014) and were registered in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry™ (STS/ACC TVT Registry). We evaluated the association between continuous and categorical gait speed and 30-day all-cause mortality before and after adjustment for STS-predicted risk of mortality score and key variables. Secondary outcomes included in-hospital mortality, bleeding, acute kidney injury, and stroke. The median gait speed was 0.63 m/s (0.47-0.79), with the slowest walkers (<0.5 m/s) constituting 28%, slow walkers (0.5 to 0.83 m/s) 48%, and normal walkers (>0.83 m/s) 24% of the population. Thirty-day all-cause mortality rates were 8.4%, 6.6%, and 5.4% for slowest, slow, and normal walkers, respectively (p<0.001). Each 0.2 m/s decrease in gait speed corresponded to an 11% increase in 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.22). The slowest walkers had 35% higher 30-day mortality than normal walkers (adjusted odds ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.80), significantly longer hospital stays, and a lower probability of being discharged to home.
Conclusions—Gait speed is independently associated with 30-day mortality following TAVR. Identification of frail patients with the slowest gait speeds facilitates pre-procedural evaluation and anticipation of a higher level of post-procedural care.
Clinical Trial Registration Information—ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01737528.
- Received November 4, 2015.
- Revision received January 22, 2016.
- Accepted February 19, 2016.