Long-Standing Persistent Atrial Fibrillation: Can We Distinguish Ectopic Activity From Reentry by Epicardial Mapping?
Both abnormal impulse initiation and reentry have been proposed as mechanism for the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). Ectopic activity of the pulmonary veins often is the electrical trigger for AF in patients with paroxysmal AF. A high impulse frequency of the ectopic focus may give rise to irregular, fibrillatory conduction, which leads to the freakish electrical pattern of AF. It is, however, often unclear whether the ectopic activity is based on abnormal impulse formation or abnormal conduction (reentry).
- arrhythmia (mechanisms)
- atrial fibrillation arrhythmia
- atrial fibrillation heart failure
- electrophysiology mapping
- Received October 6, 2015.
- Accepted October 13, 2015.