The Association of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption During Early Adulthood With the Prevalence of Coronary Artery Calcium After 20 Years of Follow-Up: The CARDIA Study
Background—The relationship between intake of fruits and vegetables (F/V) during young adulthood and coronary atherosclerosis later in life is unclear.
Methods and Results—We studied participants of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a cohort of young, healthy black and white individuals at baseline (1985-1986). Intake of F/V at baseline was assessed using a semi-quantitative interview administered diet history and CAC was measured at year 20 (2005-2006) using computed tomography. We used logistic regression to adjust for relevant variables and estimate the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) across energy-adjusted, sex-specific tertiles of total servings of F/V per day. Among our sample (n=2,506), the mean (SD) age at baseline was 25.3 (3.5) years and 62.7% were female. After adjustment for demographics and lifestyle variables, higher intake of F/V was associated with a lower prevalence of CAC: OR (95% CI) =1.00 (reference), 0.78 (0.59-1.02), and 0.74 (0.56-0.99), from the lowest to the highest tertile of F/V, p-value for trend <0.001. There was attenuation of the association between F/V and CAC after adjustment for other dietary variables but the trend remained significant: OR (95% CI): 1.00 (reference), 0.84 (0.63-1.11), and 0.92 (0.67-1.26), p-value for trend <0.002].
Conclusions—In this longitudinal cohort study, higher intake of F/V during young adulthood was associated with lower odds of prevalent CAC after 20 years of follow-up. Our results reinforce the importance of establishing a high intake of F/V as part of a healthy dietary pattern early in life.
- Received July 31, 2014.
- Revision received August 13, 2015.
- Accepted August 31, 2015.