Moving Beyond Cardio-Centricity in Heart Failure Risk Stratification
Heart failure (HF) remains the leading cause of hospitalization among older Americans.1 Survival is improving, and as such, the prevalence of HF is expected to increase 25% by the year 2030, leading to an annual healthcare cost of $70 billion. A number of cardiovascular problems have been identified that increase the risk for developing HF, including hypertension, coronary disease, obesity and diabetes.1 HF incidence can be reduced through lifestyle interventions that target these risk factors, with examples including maintenance of normal BMI, regular exercise, modest alcohol consumption, avoidance of smoking and consuming a healthy diet.2,3
- Received September 8, 2015.
- Accepted September 9, 2015.