Depression and HIV Infection are Risk Factors for Incident Heart Failure Among Veterans: Veterans Aging Cohort Study
Background—Both HIV and depression are associated with increased heart failure (HF) risk. Depression, a common comorbidity, may further increase the risk of HF among HIV+ adults. We assessed the association between HIV, depression and incident HF.
Methods and Results—Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) participants free from cardiovascular disease at baseline (N = 81,427; 26,908 HIV+, 54,519 HIV-) were categorized into four groups: HIV- without major depressive disorder (MDD) [reference]; HIV- with MDD; HIV+ without MDD; and HIV+ with MDD. ICD-9 codes from medical records were used to determine MDD and the primary outcome, HF. After 5.8 follow-up years, HF rates per 1000 person-years were highest among HIV+ participants with MDD (9.32; 95% CI, 8.20-10.6). In Cox proportional hazards models, HIV+ participants with MDD had significantly higher risk of HF [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.45-1.95] compared to HIV- participants without MDD. MDD was associated with HF in separate fully adjusted models for HIV- and HIV+ participants (aHR = 1.21; 1.06-1.37 and 1.29; 1.11-1.51, respectively). Among those with MDD, baseline antidepressant use was associated with lower risk of incident HF events (aHR = 0.76; 0.58-0.99).
Conclusions—Our study is the first to suggest MDD is an independent risk factor for HF in HIV+ adults. These results reinforce the importance of identifying and managing MDD among HIV+ patients. Future studies must clarify mechanisms linking HIV, MDD, antidepressants, and HF; and identify interventions to reduce HF morbidity and mortality in those with both HIV and MDD.
- Received December 3, 2014.
- Revision received July 15, 2015.
- Accepted August 3, 2015.