Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Phosphorylation at Ser571 Regulates Late Current, Arrhythmia, and Cardiac Function in vivo
Background—Voltage-gated Na+ channels (Nav) are essential for myocyte membrane excitability and cardiac function. Nav current (INa) is a large amplitude, short duration "spike" generated by rapid channel activation followed immediately by inactivation. However, even under normal conditions, a small "late" component of INa (INa,L) persists due to incomplete/failed inactivation of a subpopulation of channels. Notably, INa,L is directly linked with both congenital and acquired disease states. The multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) has been identified as an important activator of INa,L in disease. Several potential CaMKII phosphorylation sites have been discovered, including Ser571 in the Nav1.5 DI-DII linker, but the molecular mechanism underlying CaMKII-dependent regulation of INa,L in vivo remains unknown.
Methods and Results—To determine the in vivo role of Ser571, two Scn5a knock-in mouse models were generated expressing either: 1) Nav1.5 with a phosphomimetic mutation at Ser571 (S571E), or 2) Nav1.5 with the phosphorylation site ablated (S571A). Electrophysiology studies revealed that Ser571 regulates INa,L but not other channel properties previously linked to CaMKII. Ser571-mediated increases in INa,L promote abnormal repolarization and intracellular Ca2+ handling, and increase susceptibility to arrhythmia at the cellular and animal level. Importantly, Ser571 is required for maladaptive remodeling and arrhythmias in response to pressure overload.
Conclusions—Our data provide the first in vivo evidence for the molecular mechanism underlying CaMKII activation of the pathogenic INa,L. Relevant for improved rational design of potential therapies, our findings demonstrate that Ser571-dependent regulation of Nav1.5 specifically tunes INa,L without altering critical physiological components of the current.
- arrhythmia (mechanisms)
- calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II
- Na+ current
- ion channel
- action potential remodeling
- Received December 30, 2014.
- Revision received June 9, 2015.
- Accepted June 12, 2015.