Multiple Causes for Ischemia Without Obstructive CAD: Not a Short List!
Among angina patients undergoing coronary angiography to further evaluate suspected ischemic heart disease (IHD), "normal" or "non-obstructive" coronary artery disease (CAD) is found in 30% of men and 40-60% of women and appears to be increasing.1 It is becoming very clear that such patients do not have benign outcomes as documented in larger and larger prospective cohorts.2-5 Also important are accumulating data indicating that patient-reported outcomes and societal implications rival those observed with obstructive CAD.6, 7
- non-obstructive coronary artery disease
- myocardial bridging
- chest pain
- fractional flow reserve
- endothelial dysfunction
- Received February 13, 2015.
- Accepted February 19, 2015.