Assessing Neighborhood-Level Effects on Disparities in Cardiovascular Diseases
Despite declines in mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and many CVD risk factors, CVD remains the leading cause of death in the US and racial and ethnic disparities persist. In 2010, rates of CVD mortality per 100,000 were: 192.2 for White women; 260.5 for Black women; 278.4 for White men; and 369.2 for Black men1. In 2009-2010, metrics of ideal cardiovascular health factors (i.e., blood pressure, physical activity, healthy diet, healthy weight, smoking status, and glucose) were noted to be lower for Blacks and Mexican Americans than for Whites or other racial groups1. In 2012, the following age-adjusted prevalence estimates among non-White adult populations were noted in comparison to the White population2: (1) the prevalence of heart disease and coronary heart disease (CHD) was similar in Black, lower in Hispanic and Asian, and higher in American Indians/Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander populations; (2) the prevalence of hypertension was higher in Black, similar or lower in Hispanic and Asian, and higher in American Indians/Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander populations; and (3) the prevalence of having had a stroke was higher in Black, lower in Hispanic, and lower in Asian populations.
- Received November 21, 2014.
- Accepted November 24, 2014.