Components of Hemodynamic Load and Cardiovascular Events: The Framingham Heart Study
Background—Elevated blood pressure is the leading modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature death. The blood pressure waveform consists of discrete hemodynamic components, derived from measured central pressure and flow, which may contribute separately to risk for an adverse outcome. However, pressure-flow measures have not been studied in a large, community-based sample.
Methods and Results—We used proportional hazards models to examine association of incident CVD with forward pressure wave amplitude, mean arterial pressure, and global reflection coefficient derived from wave separation analysis and echocardiography in 2492 participants (mean age 66 ± 9 years, 56% women) in the Framingham Heart Study. During follow up (0.04 - 6.8 years), 149 participants (6%) had a CVD event. In multivariable models adjusting for age, sex, antihypertensive therapy, body mass index, heart rate, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, smoking, and presence of diabetes, forward pressure wave amplitude (HR=1.40; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.67; P=0.0003) was associated with incident CVD whereas mean arterial pressure (HR=1.10; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.29; P=0.25) and global wave reflection (HR=0.93; 95% CI: 0.78, 1.12; P=0.58) were not. After adding systolic blood pressure and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity to the model, forward pressure wave amplitude persisted as a correlate of events (HR=1.33; 95% CI, 1.05, 1.68; P=0.02).
Conclusions—Higher forward pressure wave amplitude (a measure of proximal aortic geometry and stiffness) was whereas mean arterial pressure and relative wave reflection (correlates of resistance vessel structure and function) were not associated with increased risk for incident CVD.
- Received May 23, 2014.
- Revision received October 31, 2014.
- Accepted November 3, 2014.