Interpreting the Athlete's EKG: Are All Repolarization Anomalies Created Equal?
The electrical manifestations of athletic training have been described in large athletic populations consisting predominantly of young, Caucasian (white), male athletes, competing in a variety of sports. The 2010 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) recommendations attempted to differentiate between EKG features suggestive of athletic training (type-1 changes), from those that may be indicative of cardiac disease (type-2 changes) and warrant further investigation.1 Over the past decade the utility of EKG based pre-participation cardiac evaluation has gained recognition among a number of sporting organizations and type-2 EKG patterns are likely to prompt the referral of an increasing number of athletes for comprehensive evaluation prior to clearance to compete. As such, the development of EKG criteria that are highly sensitive and specific is of paramount importance to ensure that the majority of athletes at potential risk of sudden cardiac death are identified, while minimizing unnecessary investigations or the risk of an erroneous diagnosis.
- Received November 2, 2014.
- Accepted November 5, 2014.