Assessment of Atherosclerosis in Chronic Granulomatous Disease
Background—Patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) suffer immunodeficiency due to defects in the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (NOX2) and concomitant reduction in reactive oxygen intermediates. This may result in a reduction in atherosclerotic injury.
Methods and Results—We prospectively assessed the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, biomarkers of inflammation and neutrophil activation, and the presence of MRI and CT quantified subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid and coronary arteries of 41 CGD patients and 25 healthy controls in the same age range. Uni- and multivariable associations between risk factors, inflammatory markers and atherosclerosis burden were assessed. CGD patients had significant elevations in traditional risk factors and inflammatory markers compared with controls, including; hypertension, hsCRP, oxidized LDL, and low HDL. Despite this, CGD patients had a 22% lower internal carotid artery wall volume compared with controls (361.3 ± 76.4 mm3 vs. 463.5 ± 104.7 mm3, p<0.001). This difference was comparable in p47phox and gp91phox deficient subtypes of CGD, and independent of risk factors in multivariate regression analysis. In contrast, prevalence of coronary arterial calcification was similar between CGD patients and controls (14.6%, CGD, and 6.3%, controls, p=0.39).
Conclusions—The observation by MRI of reduced carotid but not coronary artery atherosclerosis in CGD patients despite the high prevalence of traditional risk factors raises questions about the role of NOX2 in the pathogenesis of clinically significant atherosclerosis. Additional high-resolution studies in multiple vascular beds are required to address the therapeutic potential of NOX-inhibition in cardiovascular diseases.
Clinical Trial Registration Information—clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01063309.
- Received October 10, 2013.
- Revision received September 4, 2014.
- Accepted September 12, 2014.