Fetal Aortic Valvuloplasty for Evolving Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: Postnatal Outcomes of the First 100 Patients
Background—Fetal aortic valvuloplasty (FAV) can be performed for severe mid-gestation aortic stenosis (AS) in an attempt to prevent progression to hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). A subset of patients has achieved a biventricular (BV) circulation after FAV. The postnatal outcomes and survival of the BV patients, compared to those managed as HLHS, have not been reported.
Methods and Results—We included 100 patients who underwent FAV for severe mid-gestation AS with evolving HLHS from March 2000 to January 2013. Patients were categorized based on postnatal management as BV or HLHS. Clinical records were reviewed. Eighty-eight fetuses were live-born, and 38 had a BV circulation (31 from birth, 7 converted after initial univentricular palliation). Left-sided structures, namely aortic and mitral valve sizes and LV volume, were significantly larger in the BV group at the time of birth (p-values <0.01). After a median follow-up of 5.4 years, freedom from cardiac death among all BV patients was 96±4% at 5 years and 84±12% at 10 years, which was better than HLHS patients (log-rank p=0.04). There was no cardiac mortality in patients with a BV circulation from birth. All but 1 of the BV patients required postnatal intervention; 42% underwent aortic and/or mitral valve replacement. On most recent echocardiogram, the median LV end-diastolic volume z-score was +1.7 (range: -1.3, +8.2), and 80% had normal ejection fraction.
Conclusions—Short- and intermediate-term survival among patients who underwent FAV and achieved a BV circulation postnatally is encouraging. However, morbidity still exists, and on-going assessment is warranted.
- Received January 23, 2014.
- Revision received June 2, 2014.
- Accepted June 13, 2014.