Fibroblast Growth Factor 23: A Novel Key to Find Hidden Substrates of Atrial Fibrillation?
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the associated rhythm abnormalities manifesting as tachy-arrhythmias such as Atrial fibrillation (AF) continue as leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States and developed countries1. In spite of the exciting momentum of new discoveries which have greatly improved our understanding of several key molecular mechanisms underlying AF, identifying and managing AF during its early onset stage is extremely challenging2. Traditionally, direct causes for CVD have been attributed primarily to genes, ischemic heart disease, poor dietary choices and lack of exercise; studies later revealed that diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are powerful risk factors that can equally impact the heart and cause pathological structural remodeling, contractile dysfunction, hypertrophy and heart failure (HF) which are well established substrates for AF3.
- Received June 3, 2014.
- Accepted June 9, 2014.