Ambulatory Hypertension Subtypes and 24-hour Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure as Distinct Outcome Predictors in 8341 Untreated People Recruited from 12 Populations
Background—Data on risk associated with 24-hour ambulatory diastolic (DBP24) vs. systolic (SBP24) blood pressure are scarce.
Methods and Results—We recorded 24-hour blood pressure and health outcomes in 8341 untreated people (mean age, 50.8 years; 46.6% women) randomly recruited from 12 populations. We computed hazard ratios (HRs) using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Over 11.2 years (median), 927 (11.1%) participants died, 356 (4.3%) from cardiovascular causes, and 744 (8.9%) experienced a fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular event. Isolated diastolic hypertension (DBP24≥80 mmHg) did not increase the risk of total mortality, cardiovascular mortality or stroke (HRs≤1.54; P≥0.18), but was associated with a higher risk of fatal combined with nonfatal cardiovascular, cardiac or coronary events (HRs≥1.75; P≤0.0054). Isolated systolic hypertension (SBP24≥130 mmHg) and mixed diastolic plus systolic hypertension were associated with increased risks of all aforementioned endpoints (P≤0.0012). Below age 50, DBP24 was the main driver of risk, reaching significance for total (HR for 1 SD increase, 2.05; P=0.0039) and cardiovascular mortality (HR, 4.07; P=0.0032) and for all cardiovascular endpoints combined (HR, 1.74; P=0.039) with a nonsignificant contribution of SBP24 (HR≤0.92; P≥0.068); above age 50, SBP24 predicted all endpoints (HR≥1.19; P≤0.0002) with a nonsignificant contribution of DBP24 (P≥0.10). The in-teractions of age with SBP24 and DBP24 were significant for all cardiovascular and coronary events (P≤0.043).
Conclusions—The risks conferred by DBP24 and SBP24 are age dependent. DBP24 and isolated diastolic hypertension drive coronary complications below age 50, whereas above age 50 SBP24 and isolated systolic and mixed hypertension are the predominant risk factors.
- blood pressure component
- ambulatory blood pressure monitoring
- population science
- cardiovascular outcomes
- Received July 5, 2013.
- Revision received May 5, 2014.
- Accepted May 22, 2014.