Mental Disorders Across the Adult Life Course and Future Coronary Heart Disease: Evidence for General Susceptibility
Background—Depression, anxiety and psychotic disorders have been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). It is unclear whether this association between mental health and CHD is present across a wider range of mental disorders.
Methods and Results—Participants were 1,107,524 Swedish men conscripted at mean age 18.3 years. Mental disorders were assessed by psychiatric interview on conscription and data on hospital admissions for mental disorder and CHD were obtained from national registers during 22.6 years of follow-up. Increased risk of incident CHD was evident across a range of mental disorders whether diagnosed at conscription or on later hospital admission. Age-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) according to diagnoses at conscription ranged from 1.30 (1.05, 1.60) (depressive disorders) to 1.92 (1.60, 2.31) (alcohol-related disorders). The equivalent figures according to diagnoses during hospital admission ranged from 1.49 (1.24, 1.80) (schizophrenia) to 2.82 (2.53, 3.13) (other substance use disorders). Associations were little changed by adjustment for parental socioeconomic status, or body mass index, diabetes and blood pressure measured at conscription, but were partially attenuated by adjustment for smoking, alcohol intake, and intelligence measured at conscription, and for education and own socioeconomic position.
Conclusions—Increased risk of incident CHD is present across a range of mental disorders and is observable when disorders are diagnosed at a young age.
- Received February 15, 2013.
- Revision received September 12, 2013.
- Accepted September 25, 2013.