The PAI-1 Antagonist TM5441 Attenuates L-NAME-Induced Hypertension and Vascular Senescence
Background—Long-term inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by L-arginine analogues such as Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) has been shown to induce senescence in vitro and systemic hypertension and arteriosclerosis in vivo. We previously reported that PAI-1-deficient mice (PAI-1-/-) are protected against L-NAME-induced pathologies. In this study, we investigated whether a novel, orally active PAI-1 antagonist (TM5441) has a similar protective effect against L-NAME treatment. Additionally, we studied whether L-NAME can induce vascular senescence in vivo and investigated the role of PAI-1 in this process.
Methods and Results—Wild-type (WT) mice received either L-NAME or L-NAME and TM5441 for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was measured every 2 weeks. We found that TM5441 attenuated the development of hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy compared to animals that had received L-NAME alone. Additionally, TM5441-treated mice had a 34% reduction in periaortic fibrosis relative to animals on L-NAME alone. Finally, we investigated the development of vascular senescence by measuring p16Ink4a expression and telomere length in aortic tissue. We found that L-NAME increased p16Ink4a expression levels and decreased telomere length, both of which were prevented with TM5441 co-treatment.
Conclusions—Pharmacological inhibition of PAI-1 is protective against the development of hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and periaortic fibrosis in mice treated with L-NAME. Furthermore, PAI-1 inhibition attenuates the arterial expression of p16Ink4a and maintains telomere length. PAI-1 appears to play a pivotal role in vascular senescence, and these findings suggest that PAI-1 antagonists may provide a novel approach in preventing vascular aging and hypertension.
- Received April 22, 2013.
- Revision received August 13, 2013.
- Accepted September 13, 2013.