Indications for Pulmonary Valve Replacement in Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot: The Quest Continues
Until Blalock and Taussig developed the first palliative systemic-to-pulmonary shunt operation in 1945,1 tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) was a nearly uniformly lethal congenital cardiac anomaly. In the five decades since Lillehei and his colleagues at the University of Minnesota reported the first successful intracardiac repair in 1955, early mortality has decreased markedly from 50% to less than 2%.2-4 In the modern surgical era, most infants with TOF survive the initial surgical repair and reach adulthood. More recently, the excellent results in the pediatric age group have led the field to shift its attention to late sequelae of repaired TOF in the rapidly growing population of adult patients, including the increasing rates of morbidity and mortality.
- Pulmonary valve replacement
- tetralogy of Fallot
- pulmonary valve
- cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging
- right ventricular dysfunction
- Received September 15, 2013.
- Accepted September 17, 2013.