Oxidative Stress and Atrial Fibrillation: Finding a Missing Piece to the Puzzle
Atrial fibrillation (AF), one of the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmias, afflicts more than 3 million people in the United States.1 As the risk of developing AF increases with age, the prevalence of AF is projected to be 7.6 million in 2050,1 when one in five Americans will be over the age of 65.2 AF not only causes debilitating symptoms and functional impairments owing to worsened hemodynamics and embolic stroke, it also increases the risk of mortality up to 1.5-1.9 fold.3 Despite the significant morbidity and mortality burden incurred with AF, there are limited therapeutic options that may improve the outcomes of AF patients, and these options are associated with significant AF recurrence rates.4
- oxidative stress
- calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II
- NAD(P)H oxidase
- arrhythmia (heart rhythm disorders)
- Received September 6, 2013.
- Accepted September 9, 2013.