Effect of Early Metoprolol on Infarct Size in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Undergoing Primary PCI: The METOCARD-CNIC Trial
Background—The effect of β-blockers on infarct size when used in conjunction with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. We hypothesize that metoprolol reduces infarct size when administered early (intravenously [i.v.] before reperfusion).
Methods and Results—Patients with Killip-class ≤II anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing PCI within 6 hours of symptoms onset were randomized to receive i.v. metoprolol (n=131) or not (control, n=139) pre-reperfusion. All patients without contraindications received oral metoprolol within 24 hours. The pre-defined primary endpoint was infarct size on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed 5-7 days after STEMI. MRI was performed in 220 patients (81%). Mean (±SD) infarct size by MRI was smaller after i.v. metoprolol compared to control (25.6±15.3 vs. 32.0±22.2 grams; adjusted difference, -6.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], -11.39 to -1.78; P=0.012). In patients with pre-PCI TIMI flow grade 0/1, the adjusted treatment difference in infarct size was -8.02; 95% CI, -13.01 to -3.02; P=0.0029. Infarct size estimated by peak and area under the curve creatine-kinase release was measured in all study population and was significantly reduced by i.v. metoprolol. Left ventricular ejection fraction was higher in the i.v. metoprolol group (adjusted difference 2.67%; 95% CI, 0.09% to 5.21%; P=0.045). The composite of death, malignant ventricular arrhythmia, cardiogenic shock, atrioventricular block and reinfarction at 24 hours in the i.v. metoprolol and control groups respectively was 7.1% vs. 12.3%, p=0.21.
Conclusions—In patients with anterior Killip-class ≤II STEMI undergoing primary PCI, early i.v. metoprolol before reperfusion reduced infarct size and increased LVEF with no excess of adverse events during the first 24 hours after STEMI.
Clinical Trial Registration Information—ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01311700 & EUDRACT Number 2010-019939-35.
- Received May 7, 2013.
- Revision received July 19, 2013.
- Accepted August 5, 2013.