β1-Adrenergic Receptor and Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Reciprocal Down-Regulation Influences Cardiac Hypertrophic Response and Progression Toward Heart Failure: Protective Role of S1PR1 Cardiac Gene Therapy
Background—The Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) and β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed in the heart. These two GPCRs have opposing actions on adenylyl cyclase due to differential G protein-coupling. Importantly, both of these receptors can be regulated by the actions of GPCR kinase-2 (GRK2), which triggers desensitization and down-regulation processes. Although, classical signaling paradigms suggest that simultaneous activation of β1ARs and S1PR1s in a myocyte would simply be opposing action on cAMP production, in this report we have uncovered a direct interaction between these two receptors with a regulatory involvement of GRK2.
Methods and Results—In HEK293 cells overexpressing both β1AR and S1PR1, we demonstrate that β1AR down-regulation can occur after sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1PR1 agonist) stimulation while S1PR1 down-regulation can be triggered by isoproterenol (βAR agonist) treatment. This cross-talk between these two distinct GPCRs appears to have physiological significance since they interact and show reciprocal regulation in mouse hearts undergoing chronic βAR stimulation and also in a rat model of post-ischemic heart failure (HF).
Conclusions—We demonstrate that restoring cardiac plasma membrane levels of S1PR1 produce beneficial effects counterbalancing deleterious β1AR overstimulation in HF.
- Received March 18, 2013.
- Revision received August 2, 2013.
- Accepted August 9, 2013.