TGF-β Signaling in Schistosomiasis-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension: A Perspective for Anti-Fibrotic Drugs?
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease affecting a large portion of the global human population, and represents one of the most common causes of pulmonary hypertension around the world1,2,3. Schistosomiasis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is classified in the group 1.4.5., according to the current clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension from Dana Point in 20084. It has been suggested that pulmonary vascular remodeling in response to Schistosoma infection is similar to other forms of PAH, such as idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension2. In addition, the presence of prominent granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis has been described1,5,6. In recent years we noticed that augmented inflammation is indeed an unavoidable player in the pathology of idiopathic PAH, and literature suggests chronic inflammation as an important culprit in pathogenesis of schistosomiasis-associated PAH as well1,2,7. Despite the novel advances in the field, the exact underlying mechanisms and contribution of inflammation to the pathogenesis of this disease is still not fully resolved and future studies remain necessary.
- Received August 15, 2013.
- Accepted August 16, 2013.