CaMKII and PKA Differentially Regulate SR Ca2+-Leak in Human Cardiac Pathology
Background—Sarcoplasmatic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-leak through ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) dysfunction is of major pathophysiological relevance in human heart failure (HF). However, mechanisms underlying progressive RyR2 dysregulation from cardiac hypertrophy (Hy) to HF are still controversial.
Methods and Results—We investigated healthy control myocardium (NF, n=5) as well as myocardium from patients with compensated Hy (n=25) and HF (n=32). In Hy, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and protein kinase A (PKA) both phosphorylate RyR2 at levels which are not different from NF. Accordingly, inhibitors of these kinases reduce the SR Ca2+-leak. In HF, however, the SR Ca2+-leak is nearly doubled compared to Hy leading to reduced systolic Ca2+-transients, a depletion of SR Ca2+-storage and elevated diastolic Ca2+-levels. This is accompanied by a significantly increased CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2. In contrast, PKA-dependent RyR2 phosphorylation is not increased in HF and is independent of previous β-blocker treatment. In HF CaMKII inhibition but not inhibition of PKA yields a reduction of the SR Ca2+-leak. Moreover, PKA inhibition further reduces SR Ca2+-load and systolic Ca2+-transients.
Conclusions—In human Hy CaMKII as well as PKA functionally regulate RyR2 and may induce SR Ca2+-leak. In the transition from Hy to HF the diastolic Ca2+-leak increases and disturbed Ca2+-cycling occurs. This is associated with an increase in CaMKII- but not PKA-dependent RyR2-phosphorylation. CaMKII inhibition may thus reflect a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of arrhythmias and contractile dysfunction.
- Received February 5, 2013.
- Revision received May 15, 2013.
- Accepted June 25, 2013.