Identifying Locations for Public Access Defibrillators using Mathematical Optimization
Background—Geo-spatial methods using mathematical optimization to identify clusters of cardiac arrests and prioritize public locations for defibrillator deployment have not been studied. Our objective was to develop such a method and test its performance against a population-guided approach.
Methods and Results—All public location cardiac arrests in Toronto, Canada from December 16, 2005 to July 15, 2010, and all automated external defibrillator (AED) locations registered with Toronto Emergency Medical Services as of September 2009, were plotted geographically. Current AED coverage was quantified by determining the number of cardiac arrests occurring within 100 meters of a registered AED. Clusters of cardiac arrests without a registered AED within 100 meters were identified. Using mathematical optimization techniques, cardiac arrest coverage improvements were computed and shown to be superior to results from a population-guided deployment method. There were 1310 eligible public location cardiac arrests and 1669 registered AEDs. Of the eligible cardiac arrests, 304 were within 100 meters of at least one registered AED (23% coverage). The average distance from a cardiac arrest to the closest AED was 281 meters. With AEDs deployed in the top 30 locations, an additional 112 historical cardiac arrests would be covered (32% total coverage) and the average distance to the closest AED would be 262 meters.
Conclusions—Geographical clusters of cardiac arrests can be easily identified and prioritized using mathematical modeling. Optimized AED deployment can increase cardiac arrest coverage and decrease the distance to the closest AED. Mathematical modeling can augment public AED deployment programs.
- automated external defibrillator
- cardiac arrest
- cardiopulmonary resuscitation
- Received February 14, 2013.
- Accepted March 21, 2013.