Drug Screening Using a Library of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Reveals Disease Specific Patterns of Cardiotoxicity
Background—Cardiotoxicity is a leading cause for drug attrition during pharmaceutical development and has resulted in numerous preventable patient deaths. Incidents of adverse cardiac drug reactions are more common in patients with pre-existing heart disease than the general population. Here we generated a library of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) from patients with various hereditary cardiac disorders to model differences in cardiac drug toxicity susceptibility for patients of different genetic backgrounds.
Methods and Results—Action potential duration (APD) and drug-induced arrhythmia were measured at the single cell level in hiPSC-CMs derived from healthy subjects and patients with hereditary long QT syndrome (LQT), familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Disease phenotypes were verified in LQT, HCM, and DCM iPSC-CMs by immunostaining and single cell patch clamp. Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) and the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells were used as controls. Single cell PCR confirmed expression of all cardiac ion channels in patient-specific hiPSC-CMs as well as hESC-CMs, but not in HEK293 cells. Disease-specific hiPSC-CMs demonstrated increased susceptibility to known cardiotoxic drugs as measured by APD and quantification of drug-induced arrhythmias such as early afterdepolarizations (EADs) and delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs).
Conclusions—We have recapitulated drug-induced cardiotoxicity profiles for healthy subjects, LQT, HCM, and DCM patients at the single cell level for the first time. Our data indicate that healthy and diseased individuals exhibit different susceptibilities to cardiotoxic drugs and that use of disease-specific hiPSC-CMs may predict adverse drug responses more accurately than standard hERG test or healthy control hiPSC-CM/hESC-CM screening assays.
- Received February 6, 2013.
- Accepted February 15, 2013.