Perioperative Dexmedetomidine Improves Outcomes of Cardiac Surgery
Background—Cardiac surgery is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular and other complications that translate into increased mortality and healthcare costs. This retrospective study was designed to determine whether the perioperative use of dexmedetomidine could reduce the incidence of complications and mortality following cardiac surgery.
Methods and Results—1,134 patients who underwent CABG and CABG plus valvular and/or other procedures were included. 568 received intravenous dexmedetomidine infusion and 566 did not. Data were adjusted with propensity scores and multivariate logistic regression was used. The primary outcomes measured included mortality and postoperative major adverse cardiocerebral events (MACE: stroke, coma, perioperative myocardial infarction, heart block or cardiac arrest). Secondary outcomes included renal failure, sepsis, delirium, postoperative ventilation hours, length of hospital stay and 30-day readmission. Dexmedetomidine use significantly reduced postoperative in-hospital [1.23% vs. 4.59%; adjusted odds ratio (OR), 0.34; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.192 to 0.614; P < 0.0001], 30-day (1.76% vs. 5.12%; adjusted OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.226 to 0.655; P <0.0001) and 1-year (3.17% vs. 7.95%; adjusted OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.312 to 0.701; P = 0.0002) mortalities. Perioperative dexmedetomidine therapy also reduced the risk of overall complications (47.18 vs. 54.06%; adjusted OR, 0.80, 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.96; p= 0.0136) and delirium (5.46% vs. 7.42%; adjusted OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.75; p=0.0030).
Conclusions—Perioperative dexmedetomidine use was associated with a decrease in postoperative mortality up to one year and decreased incidence of postoperative complications and delirium in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
Clinical Trial Registration Information—clinicaltrials.gov; Identifier: NCT01683448.
- Received December 24, 2012.
- Revision received January 30, 2013.
- Accepted March 8, 2013.