H2S Protects Against Pressure Overload Induced Heart Failure via Upregulation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS)
Background—Cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) produces H2S via enzymatic conversion of L-cysteine and plays a critical role in cardiovascular homeostasis. We investigated the effects of genetic modulation of CSE and exogenous H2S therapy in the setting of pressure overload-induced heart failure.
Methods and Results—Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was performed in wild-type (WT), CSE knockout (KO), and cardiac specific CSE transgenic (CS-CSE Tg) mice. In addition, C57BL/6J or CSE KO mice received a novel H2S donor (SG-1002). Mice were followed for 12 weeks using echocardiography. We observed a >60% reduction in myocardial and circulating H2S levels following TAC. CSE KO mice exhibited cardiac dilatation and dysfunction significantly greater than WT mice following TAC and CS-CSE Tg mice maintained cardiac structure and function following TAC. H2S therapy with SG-1002 resulted in cardioprotection during TAC via upregulation of the VEGF-Akt-eNOS-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway with preserved mitochondrial function, attenuated oxidative stress, and increased myocardial vascular density.
Conclusions—Our results demonstrate that H2S levels are decreased in mice in the setting of heart failure. Moreover, CSE plays a critical role in the preservation of cardiac function in heart failure and oral H2S therapy prevents the transition from compensated to decompensated heart failure in part via upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and increased NO bioavailability.
- cyclic guanosine monophosphate
- hydrogen sulfide
- nitric oxide
- vascular endothelial growth factor
- Received December 26, 2012.
- Revision received January 25, 2013.
- Accepted January 30, 2013.
- Copyright © 2013, Circulation