Targeting Vascular Endothelial Cell Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Is Protein Kinase Cβ the "Bulls-eye" for Reducing Vascular Risk in Diabetes?
More than 25 million Americans or 8.3% of the population have diabetes mellitus of which approximately 95% of diagnosed cases are type 2 diabetes.1 Between 1990 and 2010, the number of new cases of diabetes has almost tripled in the U.S. and the Centers for Disease Control projects that 1 in 3 Americans will have diabetes by 2050 if this trend continues. The presence of type 2 diabetes increases the risk of microvascular complications such as retinopathy and nephropathy, and macrovascular disease most notably atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). Indeed, CAD-related death remains the primary cause of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes even on standard glucose control.1 However, more intensive glucose control is not associated with reduced CAD risk and may even increase mortality,2 therefore there remains a critical need to determine novel adjunct therapy to standard glycemic control that will reduce vascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes.
- Received November 14, 2012.
- Accepted November 15, 2012.
- Copyright © 2012, American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited