Increased Circulating Levels of 3-Nitrotyrosine Autoantibodies: Marker for and/or Maker of Cardiovascular Disease?
3-nitrotyrosine formation is an oxidative protein modification that was first discovered in vivo in the early 1990's by Beckman and colleagues 1,2. The biological relevance of this process was extensively investigated in the subsequent years and further facilitated by the development of 3-nitrotyrosine specific antibodies3. Protein tyrosine nitration is mainly mediated by three biochemical processes (Figure 1): 1) by peroxynitrite (ONOO-) formation4-6, the reaction product of nitric oxide (•NO) and superoxide (•O2-), 2) by a (myelo)peroxidase-catalyzed nitrogen dioxide radical (•NO2) formation from hydrogen peroxide and nitrite7, 8, and 3) by a non-specific formation of the nitrogen dioxide radical from nitric oxide in oxygenated buffers (reflecting rather artificial ex vivo conditions).
- oxidative stress
- eNOS uncoupling
- nitrated prostacyclin synthase
- protein tyrosine nitration
- Received October 10, 2012.
- Accepted October 11, 2012.
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