Sex and Cardiovascular Risk: Are Women Advantaged Or Men Disadvantaged?
There are more women than men living with cardiovascular disease, and the absolute annual number of cardiovascular deaths among women exceeds that in men.1 While sex differences in cardiovascular risk are recognized in the risk stratification tools (e.g. Framingham risk score, CHA2DS2-VASc score) and sex-specific risk management guidelines developed for clinical practice, it has to be recognized that women remain under-represented in clinical trials. Approximately half of individuals with hypertension, diabetes, or coronary artery disease are women, yet women make up only 25-44% of patients enrolled in trials studying these disorders.2 Furthermore, less than a third of primary trial publications include sex-specific results.2 (SELECT FULL TEXT TO CONTINUE)
- Received July 15, 2012.
- Accepted July 17, 2012.
- Copyright © 2012, American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited