Survival in Childhood Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Insights From the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-term PAH Disease Management
Background—Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare but important cause of morbidity and mortality in children.
Methods and Results—We analyzed data from 216 patients aged ≤18 years at diagnosis enrolled in the Registry to EValuate Early And Long-term PAH disease management (REVEAL). Median age at diagnosis and enrollment was 7 and 15 years, respectively. The most frequent presenting symptom was dyspnea (idiopathic/familial PAH [IPAH/FPAH], 53%; PAH associated with congenital heart disease [APAH-CHD], 30%). Presyncope/syncope was more frequent in patients with IPAH/FPAH (36%) than APAH-CHD (4%). At diagnosis, mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) were 56 mmHg and 17 Wood units*m2, respectively. Five-year survival from diagnosis for the overall cohort was 74%±6% with no significant difference between the IPAH/FPAH (n=122; 75%±7%) and APAH-CHD (n=77; 71%±13%) cohorts (P=0.53). Older age at diagnosis was the only variable significantly associated with decreased survival from diagnosis. Variables at enrollment that were significantly associated with decreased survival from enrollment included higher PVRI, lower weight z-scores, and FPAH. Additional variables at enrollment, identified in a secondary analysis, that were marginally associated with increased survival from enrollment included acute vasoreactivity (adaptation of conventional pediatric definition; P=0.087) and lower brain natriuretic peptide (P=0.060). None of the 22 patients who were acute responders treated with high-dose calcium channel blockade as monotherapy or combination therapy died within 5 years of diagnosis.
Conclusions—Utilizing the REVEAL Registry, we identified key predictors of survival in childhood PAH. Refining these prognostic parameters should help clinicians improve outcomes.
Clinical Trial Registration Information—ClinicalTrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00370214
- Received February 16, 2011.
- Accepted October 14, 2011.
- Copyright © 2011, American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use prohibited